Anthrax Toxin Wikipedia

Anthrax toxin - Wikipedia.

Anthrax toxin is a three-protein exotoxin secreted by virulent strains of the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis--the causative agent of anthrax.The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective antigen (PA), and two enzyme components, called edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF)..!&&p=292d1e0f1510aafcJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTExNg&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb410445-1b3a-11ed-a9bf-a4c756599959&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQW50aHJheF90b3hpbg&ntb=1.

Anthrax - Wikipedia.

Anthrax is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal and injection. Symptom onset occurs between one day and more than two months after the infection is contracted. The skin form presents with a small blister with surrounding swelling that often turns into a painless ulcer with a black center..!&&p=e1d041d776e376a2JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTEzNQ&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb412545-1b3a-11ed-be35-2fc4ac1fe7c4&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQW50aHJheA&ntb=1.

Toxin - Wikipedia.

A toxin is a naturally occurring organic poison produced by metabolic activities of living cells or organisms. Toxins occur especially as a protein or conjugated protein. The term toxin was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849-1919) and is derived from the word toxic. Toxins can be small molecules, peptides, or proteins that are capable of causing disease on contact ....!&&p=f28cd730a989bd5aJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTE1NA&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb4136a0-1b3a-11ed-91d7-d351712f1b61&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvVG94aW4&ntb=1.

Biological agent - Wikipedia.

A biological agent (also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon) is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, fungus, chemical, or toxin that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW). In addition to these living or replicating pathogens, toxins and biotoxins are also included among ....!&&p=866e16ed83db6b92JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTE3NA&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb4146f1-1b3a-11ed-9ae9-2626ba2e9e97&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQmlvbG9naWNhbF9hZ2VudA&ntb=1.

Clostridium botulinum - Wikipedia.

Clostridium botulinum is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming, motile bacterium with the ability to produce the neurotoxin botulinum.. The botulinum toxin can cause botulism, a severe flaccid paralytic disease in humans and other animals, and is the most potent toxin known to mankind, natural or synthetic, with a lethal dose of 1.3-2.1 ng/kg in humans..!&&p=f6b1bf495844746dJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTE5Mw&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb41571a-1b3a-11ed-abf2-12d4faee9369&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQ2xvc3RyaWRpdW1fYm90dWxpbnVt&ntb=1.

Mycotoxin - Wikipedia.

A mycotoxin (from the Greek u???? mykes, "fungus" and ?????? toxini, "toxin") is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by organisms of kingdom Fungi and is capable of causing disease and death in both humans and other animals. The term 'mycotoxin' is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products produced by fungi that readily colonize crops..!&&p=92a0cfeeca88085fJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTIxMw&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb41672a-1b3a-11ed-a842-3963fae9c6d4&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvTXljb3RveGlu&ntb=1.

2001 anthrax attacks - Wikipedia.

The 2001 anthrax attacks, also known as Amerithrax (a portmanteau of "America" and "anthrax", from its FBI case name), occurred in the United States over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001, one week after the September 11 terrorist attacks.Letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and to Democratic ....!&&p=36d5f5f5d9152d80JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTIzMQ&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb41775b-1b3a-11ed-9487-c40af5659d0d&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvMjAwMV9hbnRocmF4X2F0dGFja3M&ntb=1.

Bacillus - Wikipedia.

Bacillus (Latin "stick") is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, a member of the phylum Bacillota, with 266 named species.The term is also used to describe the shape (rod) of other so-shaped bacteria; and the plural Bacilli is the name of the class of bacteria to which this genus belongs. Bacillus species can be either obligate aerobes which are dependent on oxygen, or ....!&&p=88a7f92c56545659JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTI1MA&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb418738-1b3a-11ed-95df-28e38d54480e&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQmFjaWxsdXM&ntb=1.

Ricin - Wikipedia.

Ricin (/ ' r aI s I n / RY-sin) is a lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) and a highly potent toxin produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis.The median lethal dose (LD 50) of ricin for mice is around 22 micrograms per kilogram of body weight via intraperitoneal injection. Oral exposure to ricin is far less toxic. An estimated lethal oral dose in humans is ....!&&p=1e3c6e65f1a31b6bJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTI3MA&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb419706-1b3a-11ed-bd80-beb42f47c90d&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvUmljaW4&ntb=1.

Biological warfare - Wikipedia.

Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, insects, and fungi with the intent to kill, harm or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war. Biological weapons (often termed "bio-weapons", "biological threat agents", or "bio-agents") are living organisms or replicating entities ( i.e. ....!&&p=b790b095c0e8c96bJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTI4OA&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb41a765-1b3a-11ed-9b74-d1019850cd40&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQmlvbG9naWNhbF93YXJmYXJl&ntb=1.

α-Amanitin - Wikipedia.

?-Amanitin (alpha-Amanitin) is a cyclic peptide of eight amino acids.It is possibly the most deadly of all the amatoxins, toxins found in several species of the mushroom genus Amanita, one being the death cap (Amanita phalloides) as well as the destroying angel, a complex of similar species, principally A. virosa and A. bisporigera.It is also found in the mushrooms Galerina marginata ....!&&p=54684c2c3aa6d0c3JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTMwNw&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb41b7df-1b3a-11ed-8b08-705ea2c5a190&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvJUNFJTkxLWFtYW5pdGlu&ntb=1.

Bufotoxin - Wikipedia.

Bufotoxins are a family of toxic steroid lactones or substituted Tryptamines of which some may or may not be toxic. They occur in the parotoid glands, skin and poison of many toads (genus Bufo) and other amphibians, and in some plants and mushrooms. The exact composition varies greatly with the specific source of the toxin. It can contain 5-MeO-DMT, bufagins, bufalin, bufotalin, ....!&&p=40e984fedb0496e4JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTMyNg&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb41c8da-1b3a-11ed-a2b5-f7898603f596&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQnVmb3RveGlu&ntb=1.

Bradley L. Pentelute - Wikipedia.

Anthrax toxin delivery. Moving peptide and protein therapeutics through the plasma membrane of cells has been made more efficient through the use of a platform made from the anthrax lethal toxin (PA/LFN), which arises from the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Pentelute's lab took more than two decades to develop this delivery vehicle..!&&p=fd6ca85b7ad91c5bJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTM0NQ&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb41d8c2-1b3a-11ed-8971-3bd7f72210c0&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQnJhZGxleV9MLl9QZW50ZWx1dGU&ntb=1.

Saxitoxin - Wikipedia.

Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin and the best-known paralytic shellfish toxin (PST). Ingestion of saxitoxin by humans, usually by consumption of shellfish contaminated by toxic algal blooms, is responsible for the illness known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).. The term saxitoxin originates from the genus name of the butter clam from which it was first isolated..!&&p=5f01dc828175ffd7JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTM2NA&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb41e8c2-1b3a-11ed-8ecc-517772044e23&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvU2F4aXRveGlu&ntb=1.

Botulinum toxin - Wikipedia.

Botulinum toxin (BoNT), often shortened to Botox, is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. It prevents the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from axon endings at the neuromuscular junction, thus causing flaccid paralysis. The toxin causes the disease botulism.The toxin is also used commercially ....!&&p=6043fcb297a82b68JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTM4Mg&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb41f89b-1b3a-11ed-b183-47fb604780e9&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQm90dWxpbnVtX3RveGlu&ntb=1.

Porton Down - Wikipedia.

Porton Down is a science park in Wiltshire, England, just northeast of the village of Porton, near Salisbury.It is home to two British government facilities: a site of the Ministry of Defence's Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) - known for over 100 years as one of the UK's most secretive and controversial military research facilities, occupying 7,000 acres (2,800 ha) - and ....!&&p=3de3096274fb3414JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTQwMQ&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb420841-1b3a-11ed-8263-0aaf997fed7b&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvUG9ydG9uX0Rvd24&ntb=1.

Ciguatera fish poisoning - Wikipedia.

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), also known simply as ciguatera, is a foodborne illness caused by eating reef fish whose flesh is contaminated with certain toxins. Such individual fish are said to be ciguatoxic.Symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, numbness, itchiness, sensitivity to hot and cold, dizziness, and weakness. The onset of symptoms varies with the amount of toxin ....!&&p=2dd002da8d4edc0fJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTQyMA&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb421865-1b3a-11ed-8117-b600687acdc0&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQ2lndWF0ZXJhX2Zpc2hfcG9pc29uaW5n&ntb=1.

Amatoxin - Wikipedia.

Amatoxin is the collective name of a subgroup of at least nine related toxic compounds found in three genera of poisonous mushrooms (Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota) and one species (Conocybe filaris) of the genus Conocybe. From the amanita, the most notably is the death cap (Amanita phalloides).Amatoxins are lethal in even small doses, as little as half a mushroom, ....!&&p=326c6b911b18ecedJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTQzOQ&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb422813-1b3a-11ed-9f31-9b5ab37194e0&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQW1hdG94aW4&ntb=1.

Leukocidin - Wikipedia.

A leukocidin is a type of cytotoxin created by some types of bacteria (Staphylococcus).It is a type of pore-forming toxin.The model for pore formation is step-wise. First, the cytotoxin's "S" subunit recognizes specific protein-containing receptors, or an integrin on the host cell's surface..!&&p=14448b0a391c740dJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTQ1Nw&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb423858-1b3a-11ed-8b52-194a8897e4af&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvTGV1a29jaWRpbg&ntb=1.


Bruce Edwards Ivins (/ ' aI v I n z /; April 22, 1946 - July 29, 2008) was an American microbiologist, vaccinologist, senior biodefense researcher at the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases ....!&&p=b1dafe95806cafc4JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTQ3Mg&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb424fa5-1b3a-11ed-9e16-ca9653c0162e&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvQnJ1Y2VfRWR3YXJkc19Jdmlucw&ntb=1.

History of animal testing - Wikipedia.

The history of animal testing goes back to the writings of the Ancient Greeks in the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, with Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304-258 BCE) one of the first documented to perform experiments on nonhuman animals. Galen, a physician in 2nd-century Rome, dissected pigs and goats, and is known as the "Father of Vivisection.".!&&p=c27be890cf4f86fcJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTQ5Ng&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb42668a-1b3a-11ed-9476-8cf29786f530&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvSGlzdG9yeV9vZl9hbmltYWxfdGVzdGluZw&ntb=1.

Select agent - Wikipedia.

The SAP was established to satisfy requirements of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of 2002, which were enacted in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks and the subsequent 2001 anthrax attacks. Using select agents in biomedical research prompts concerns about dual use..!&&p=373f68747120c18aJmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTUxNQ&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb42776c-1b3a-11ed-b73b-0cb985f9cac0&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvU2VsZWN0X2FnZW50&ntb=1.

Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin - Wikipedia.

Alpha-toxin, also known as alpha-hemolysin (Hla), is the major cytotoxic agent released by bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the first identified member of the pore forming beta-barrel toxin family. This toxin consists mostly of beta-sheets (68%) with only about 10% alpha-helices.The hly gene on the S. aureus chromosome encodes the 293 residue protein ....!&&p=98cc8dc0e85269f7JmltdHM9MTY2MDQxNzU2NiZpZ3VpZD03ZDNhZjE4ZS04Y2Q5LTRiMmEtYWMyYS1hZWY3MDA1YjZhMjUmaW5zaWQ9NTUzNA&ptn=3&hsh=3&fclid=fb4287f2-1b3a-11ed-bed7-55e74ad09744&u=a1aHR0cHM6Ly9lbi53aWtpcGVkaWEub3JnL3dpa2kvU3RhcGh5bG9jb2NjdXNfYXVyZXVzX2FscGhhX3RveGlu&ntb=1.